How long will coronavirus vaccines protect people?

Doctors worry that Covid-19 may end up being like influenza, which requires a new vaccine every year. Vaccine makers are working to find out.


I'm Limeiyan. In 1917, King George V of England sent a congratulatory telegram to 24 people who turned 100 years old. The UK's population over 100 has since grown to about 3,000 in the mid-1980s and more than 13,000 in 2019. These lifespan numbers are often used by the government to decide to raise the age at which public annual leave begins to be paid. But what if not everyone can live the same way? According to England's statistics before the spread of the new coronavirus, life expectancy continued to grow in high-income areas and low-income areas in economically rich areas such as London. In contrast, life expectancy has begun to decline since 2010 in the most deprived areas of economically disadvantaged areas. The question arises as to whether it is fair to raise the age of payment uniformly. There are also concerns about whether low-wage labor can continue to work physically for a long time. The UK government plans to raise the pension age from 66 to 67 from 2026 to 2028. Looking at the latest figures, healthy life expectancy was only 52.3 years for men and 51.4 years for women in England's lowest standard of living, while it was 70.7 and 71.2 years in the highest standard of living, respectively. Low-wage labor, which is common in poor areas, is often unsuitable for the elderly and those who are in poor physical condition. For example, hard work in a warehouse of an online shopping company consumes physical strength. In a survey of European workers, 72% of high-skilled white-collar workers said they could continue their current job at age 60, while 44% of low-skilled manual workers. Since this is a story before the corona illness, there is a high possibility that the health inequalities associated with the difference between rich and poor will widen further in the future. British pension expert Ros Altman argues that the pension system should be reviewed immediately to enable early payments to people in distress. There is a reason why it is preferable to have all pension ages the same. Given that pensions are supported by the taxes of the working generation, we must avoid situations where it is difficult to maintain the system due to the advancement of benefits. If you change the age of pension payment depending on the area you live in or your work history, the procedure will become complicated. Addressing the root cause is paramount to poor health and shortened lifespan. Measures can be considered to increase the budget allocated to the welfare, education and health of children in poor areas, and to reform the labor market to improve employment stability. However, the movement of the British government is sluggish. If the government does not take action, the pressure on people suffering from living to receive pensions early will steadily increase. Some countries have already made it possible to accelerate pension payments under certain conditions. In Portugal, France and Germany, if they start working at a relatively young age and have been working for a long time, they can retire early and receive their pension in advance without reduction. Last year in Denmark, it was decided that people who had worked for more than 42 years at the age of 61 would be able to receive their pension one to three years ahead of schedule. By addressing the issue of inequality, the Danish government believes it will be easier to gain public support for a uniform increase in the age of payment. It is difficult to set the support age because the two trends of aging and widening disparity are occurring at the same time. If we do not work to eliminate inequality, it will become even more difficult to support an aging society. (Nihonkeizai Shimbun, The Financial Times, 2021/3/30, Employment columnist = Sarah O'Connor)
我是黎美言。1917年,英國國王喬治五世(George V)致賀電給24名,享年100歲。此後,英國的100餘名人口在1980年代中期增長到了3,000左右,到2019年已超過13,000。這些壽命數字經常被政府用來決定提高開始領取公共年假的年齡。但是如果不是每個人都能以同樣的方式生活呢?根據英格蘭在新冠狀病毒傳播之前的統計,在倫敦等經濟富裕地區的高收入地區和低收入地區,預期壽命持續增長。相反,自2010年以來,在經濟最貧困地區的最貧困地區,人們的預期壽命開始下降。出現一個問題,就是統一提高支付年齡是否公平。人們還擔心低薪勞動力是否可以長時間繼續從事體力勞動。英國政府計劃將退休金年齡從2026年的20歲提高到2028年的67歲。根據最新數據,英格蘭最低生活水平的男性健康預期壽命分別為52.3歲和女性51.4歲,而最高生活水平分別為70.7歲和71.2歲。低工資勞動在貧困地區很普遍,通常不適合老年人和身體狀況不佳的人。例如,在在線購物公司的倉庫中辛苦工作會消耗體力。在對歐洲工人的一項調查中,有72%的高技能白領工人說他們可以在60歲時繼續目前的工作,而44%的低技能體力勞動者則留在我這裡。由於這是電暈病之前的故事,因此與貧富差距有關的健康不平等很有可能在未來進一步擴大。英國退休金專家羅斯·奧特曼(Ros Altman)認為,應立即審查退休金制度,以便能夠儘早向遇難者付款。有一個原因使所有退休金年齡都相同是可取的。鑑於養老金是由勞動者的稅收來支持的,我們必須避免由於福利的提高而難以維持該制度的情況。如果根據居住地區或工作經歷來改變退休金的支付年齡,則程序將變得很複雜。解決根本原因對於健康狀況不佳和壽命縮短至關重要。可以考慮採取措施增加分配給貧困地區兒童福利,教育和健康的預算,並改革勞動力市場以改善就業穩定性。但是,英國政府的運動緩慢。如果政府不採取行動,那么生活困難的人要儘早領取養老金的壓力將會穩步增加。一些國家已經有可能在一定條件下加快養老金的支付。在葡萄牙,法國和德國,如果您從一個相對年輕的年齡開始工作,並且已經工作了很長時間,那麼您可以提前退休並提前領取養老金而不會減少。去年,在丹麥,人們決定在61歲時工作超過42年的人能夠比計劃提前一到三年領取養老金。丹麥政府認為,通過解決不平等問題,將更容易獲得公眾對統一提高支付年齡的支持。設置撫養年齡很困難,因為衰老和差距擴大的兩種趨勢是同時發生的。如果我們不努力消除不平等,則支持老齡化社會將變得更加困難。 (《日本經濟新聞》,《金融時報》,2021/3/30,就業專欄作家=薩拉·奧康納(Sarah O'Connor))